SWEDISH CIVIL CONTINGENCIES AGENCY
2020 will see a new project implemented by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency or MSB known as LACER – or Leveraging ASEAN Capacities for Emergency Response through Support from EU Member States Civil Protection Agencies.
LACER’s specific objectives are to (1) strengthen the capacity and sustainability of the AHA Centre towards achieving operational excellence in disaster monitoring, preparedness and emergency response, and; (2) enhance mechanisms for ASEAN leadership to respond as one, through excellence and innovation in disaster management.
This EU funded project will be implemented through a consortium led by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), alongside the Estonian Rescue Board (ERB). For Volume 58 we take a look into the first of these new partners, the MSB, with the next volume to provide us an in-depth look into the ERB.
THE SWEDISH CIVIL CONTINGENCIES AGENCY (MSB)
The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency – or Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap in Swedish – is a government authority mandated to enhance and support societal capacities for preparedness, prevention and response to emergencies and crises. MSB’s Resilience Building Section ultimately aims to contribute to strengthened resilience in disaster prone countries. It represents more than 30 years of experience in disaster risk management and international operations. MSB has experience in humanitarian and development aid across countries with severe records of disasters, thus enabling it to use the knowledge acquired from overseas humanitarian work in national response, preparedness and mitigation. MSB holds experience across the entire risk spectrum, ranging from everyday hazards to major disasters in Sweden and internationally , as well as also throughout the whole disaster risk management process. MSB ultimately aims to contribute to strengthened resilience in disaster prone countries – ensuring it is particularly qualified to support other disaster risk management actors such as the AHA Centre.
MSB has a total staff of approximately 900, and an international response roster of over 1,500 experts for international operations. Furthermore, MSB can draw upon its vast pool of domestic experts for long-term capacity development projects. Trainings on risk and vulnerability analysis, contingency planning, early warning systems and overall disaster management are examples of activities that MSB has carried out. Within the area of response, MSB continuously engages in and supports operational responses, while at the same time being involved in the development of methods and approaches aiming to enhance preparation and risk reduction.
Internationally, MSB recently led a consortium on Instrument for Pre-Accession (IPA) in the Programme for Disaster Risk Assessment and Mapping (IPA DRAM), as well as participating in IPA Floods, the IPA Civil Protection Cooperation project, and supported the Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Initiative (DPPI) with capacity development initiatives. Furthermore, MSB is one of the founders of the International Humanitarian Partnership (IHP), a network of NDMOs in Europe who mobilise personnel and material to emergencies across the globe. Previously, MSB has gained experience on disaster preparedness in the ASEAN region through an ongoing International Training Programme in disaster management, working with countries including Cambodia and the Philippines, as well as currently cooperating with the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre on a programme building resilience through inclusive and climate-adaptive disaster risk reduction in Asia-Pacific. This has ensured that MSB holds a network of experts exposed to and with experience from the ASEAN region to support the LACER project activities.
Written by : Ina Rachmawati | Photo : AHA Centre
Vol 57 – THE CENTRE FOR NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY STUDIES AT THE RAJARATNAM SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
THE CENTRE FOR NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY STUDIES AT
THE S. RAJARATNAM SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, SINGAPORE
Academic institutions form a strong and relevant partnership for the AHA Centre, particularly as it expands its work and increases capacity throughout the ASEAN region. The AHA Centre has had an ongoing working knowledge partnership with the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore for many years, with the RSIS Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies (NTS Centre) forming a key partner for both the AHA Centre and the ASEAN region on academic and policy research on disaster management. The NTS Centre was established in 2008, and has developed three core research themes: Climate Security, Migration and Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR). This month, the AHA Centre gathered some insight from Professor Mely Caballero-Anthony, NTS Centre Head at RSIS.
Professor Caballero-Anthony explains the link between the work of the NTS Centre and disaster management, alongside the RSIS’s engagement with the AHA Centre in its early years.
“The NTS Centre has tracked the development of regional governance on non-traditional security issues like disasters since its founding in 2008. We have engaged with the AHA Centre since it was established in November 2011 and have developed a strong knowledge partnership. This partnership continues to flourish with the development of our own humanitarian assistance and disaster relief programme in 2015 and the engagement of NTS Centre in disaster and humanitarian affairs and policy development in the Asia-Pacific.”
She also highlights ongoing work and partnerships with other key ASEAN stakeholders such as the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM), the Singapore Civil Defense Force, and the ASEAN Secretariat with an array of programmatic areas.
When asked about the all-important relationship between disaster management organisations and the academic world, the Professor highlights the importance of a networked approach to solving problems, that is based on the premise that sustainable answers can be found through working together across different sectors.
“Disaster governance is the most developed in this respect and the seeds have been planted to grow the relationship between academia and disaster management practitioners in ASEAN. However, it remains a growth area where there is a need to engage the social sciences more to find answers to the societal challenges we face. Within universities there are different disciplines which bring a range of skillsets to the table from law to business and the natural to social sciences and humanities. It is through a carefully calibrated combination working together that we are well placed to find sustainable solutions to the disaster governance challenges we face in the region and beyond.”
Professor Caballero-Anthony holds high hopes for partnerships between academic institutions and disaster management bodies – such as the great example on display between the AHA Centre and the NTS Centre of RSIS – and hopes that more such partnerships can expand from this strong base.
“A strong symbiotic relationship between scholars and practitioners gives us the opportunity to bridge the gap between real-world challenges on the ground with the development of longer-term strategic vision and policy frameworks from the interaction between our two communities.”
Written by : William Shea | Photo : AHA Centre
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE AHA CENTRE’S INNOVATIVE PARTNERSHIP
The AHA Centre is continuously striving to improve the ASEAN region’s efforts in responding to and managing disaster. Starting in 2017, the AHA Centre has been supported by the Government of the United Kingdom (UK) to undertake a range of innovative activities with a wide variety of disaster management stakeholders.
In 2017, the UK government – through the British Embassy in Jakarta – supported the AHA Centre initiative for Public-Private Partnerships dialogue. The AHA Centre’s aim to engage further with new stakeholders, especially from the private sector and the media, came about due to the increasing importance of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in disaster management. It was becoming increasingly apparent that the immense resources required to manage disasters in the region could not be achieved by the AHA Centre alone, and therefore the need for active, coordinated and strategic participation from other stakeholders became a priority. The event featured an interactive high-level panel dialogue with prominent speakers. Momentum from the event was used to gain insights and discussion with potential partners, to then build innovative partnerships for developing a more resilient ASEAN community. The role of the AHA Centre as the primary regional coordinating agency in disaster management in the ASEAN region is also to promote good PPP practices across the region for managing disaster preparedness, response and recovery efforts.
Continuing this innovative partnership, early in 2019 the AHA Centre launched the first edition of the ASEAN Risk Monitor and Disaster Management Review (ARMOR). The report – which contains a collection of ten chapters by disaster management experts and practitioners – provides new analysis and insights on the science behind disaster management, and its applicability to policy making. A key aim of ARMOR is to bridge the gap between science and decision-making in disaster management, with the launch event opening discussions between scientists and decision-makers. The report addresses the various aspects of disaster management in Southeast Asia today, ranging from climate change, disaster monitoring systems, early warning systems, technological accidents triggered by natural hazards (NATECH), and strategy, policy, and practice in disaster management. The production of this publication was supported by the Government of the United Kingdom, again through the British Embassy in Jakarta.
Written by : Ina Rachmawati | Photo : AHA Centre
NEW ZEALAND PARTNERSHIP WITH AHA CENTRE
With the AHA Centre Executive (ACE) Programme taking place during the second half of 2019, we will bring to you insights of AHA Centre partners at work – showcasing their input and value through their engagement in the ACE Programme
The New Zealand Government is one of the AHA Centre’s original partners – dating back before the official establishment of the Centre in 2011 – and has continued its strong support for disaster management with the AHA Centre through its engagement in the ACE Programme. The New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade (MFAT) through the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided ACE Programme support since 2014, and has engaged a number of other New Zealand institutions within the effort to build a generation of future ASEAN leaders in disaster management.
During the 2019 ACE Programme implementation, MFAT – supported by the University of Canterbury – delivered a number of activities with the programme participants, including key courses on Introduction to Hazards and Critical Incident Leadership (CIL). They also worked with participants in Jakarta to prepare for their visit to New Zealand to engage in the courses. These courses were co-developed by MFAT and the AHA Centre, and stand as MFAT’s key contribution within the ACE Programme. The CIL course is a 150-hour component of the ACE curriculum that concentrates on the development of critical incident leadership skills, communication, and exercise management for the future disaster management leaders in ASEAN. Undertaken in New Zealand, CIL specifically targets areas of strategic thinking, proactive planning, decision-making, and situational awareness based on engagement with stakeholders in disaster management.
MFAT support the in-country course delivery as part of an overall 2-week study trip that took participants to institutions and disaster sites throughout the four New Zealand cities of Christchurch, Kaikoura, Wellington and Auckland. The participants engaged in lectures from researchers and practitioners, including cultural experience and community insights from Maori tribe representatives (Ngai Tahu – Maru Kaitatea) about response and resilience after the 2016 earthquake in Kaikoura. Participants learnt about the Maori’s values on resilience to natural disaster, where people of Maori descent aim to protect their resources (taonga) to prevent disaster and to preserve their livelihood and sustainability.
Alongside the preparation for courses in Jakarta, and the study trip itself, MFAT also provides support to the ACE Programme through professional engagements delivered by prominent individuals such as Her Excellency Pam Dunn, Ambassador of New Zealand for ASEAN for the ACE Programme in 2018, and Her Excellency Jo Tyndall, New Zealand High Commissioner to Singapore for the ACE Programme in 2019. They engaged as speakers in the ACE Programme Leaders Talks, which allow participants to learn about leadership through their expertise and experience being the world’s key leaders themselves. Through inputs such as these, MFAT and the Government of New Zealand have opened the minds and worlds of 97 ACE Programme participants so far, and continue to provide their valuable support and experience to the ACE Programme and the AHA Centre as a whole.
Written by : Putri Mumpuni | Photo : AHA Centre
UNDERSTANDING VULNERABILITIES AND RISKS FACED BY WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN DISASTERS
With the AHA Centre Executive (ACE) Programme taking place during the second half of 2019, we will bring to you insights of AHA Centre partners at work – showcasing their input and value through their engagement in the ACE Programme. Each article will be presented by a guest writer, who is also a participant in the ongoing programme, and one of the region’s future leaders on Disaster Management.
Gender inequity – alongside the context for children and people with disabilities (PWD) see very high rates of vulnerability for these groups in the face of disaster. While there are a range of social, political and economic complexities behind this context, the reality is that women, children and PWD are much more heavily affected by disasters in ASEAN. While vulnerability is high, the context for women also holds great significance and opportunity for their engagement in mitigating and managing disaster in the region. As part of the ACE Programme, participants were engaged in interesting and eye-opening training on Rapid Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Risks faced by Women and Children in Humanitarian Settings.
The training course ran in August 2019, and was conducted by UNWOMEN, with support from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). The Rapid Assessment for Women and Children course aims to increase participants understandings of the specific vulnerabilities, capacities, and needs of women and children in disasters, facilitate their understanding of ethical considerations and core principles relevant to data collection on women and children in emergencies, and equip them with practical tools for data collection and analysis. Facilitators from the three agencies worked with participants to integrate gender and disability component into disaster management and emergency response programme design.
During the course, facilitators increased ACE participants’ understanding on the basics of gender, disability and child protection; vulnerabilities and risk factors that women and girls/boys face in emergencies; how to gather and collect data in emergency settings that includes gender-based violence cases; and familiarity with different types of assessments and tools for data collection, including tailoring the ERAT Rapid Assessment Tool and Report Format to include these specific interjections.
Early course feedback found that ACE participants mostly had yet to undertake basic humanitarian training in gender or child protection context. Such training forms an introduction and opportunity for humanitarian staff in National Disaster Management Organisations (NDMOs) to consider intersectionality and protection issues across disaster clusters in disaster management and emergency response, with a crucial need for these intersectionalities to be highlighted and investigated regarding the role of women, men, boys and girls within the humanitarian programming cycle and across the clusters. Added elements included the integration of inclusivity considerations (ethnicity, disability, etc.), gender-based violence (including prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse – PSEA), and child protection across the various modules of humanitarian programme cycle –not just within rapid assessment. Through their expertise, UNWOMEN, UNICEF and UNFPA displayed their willingness to support the AHA Centre in integrating these themes across the modules and programme, resulting in stronger and more inclusive outcomes for disaster management in the ASEAN region.
Written by : Maricel Aguilar & Putri Mumpuni | Photo : AHA Centre
USAID’S REGIONAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE OFFICE (RELO)
With the start of the AHA Centre Executive (ACE) Programme taking place in July 2019, for the coming volumes of The Column, we will bring to you insights of AHA Centre partners at work – showcasing their input and value through their engagement in the ACE Programme. Each article will be presented by a guest writer, who is also a participant in the ongoing programme, and one of the region’s future leaders on Disaster Management.
The U.S. Embassy Jakarta’s Regional English Language Office and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance joined forces to offer a course on English Communication for Disaster Managers (ECDM) at the AHA Centre during the opening weeks of the AHA Centre Executive (ACE) Programme, in Jakarta from 3–20 July 2019.
The 3-week course was facilitated by two instructors from Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (MIIS), and included 12 online modules as well as face-to-face sessions on content and language-integrated topics that are directly relevant to the ASEAN region. The eighteen course participants (all participants in the ACE Programme) are made-up from the National Disaster Management Organisations (NDMOs) of all ten ASEAN Member States, with this five-month work/study rotation inside the AHA Centre being conducted entirely in English language.
This ECDM course was implemented prior to the official start of the ACE Programme, to allow participants to improve their technical English language proficiency, which in-turn support the enhancement of overall subject-matter training. This is also the outcome of previous ACE Programme evaluations that highlighted the need for extra attention afforded to English language strengthening, as most participants are from nations in which English is not their mother tongue. By the end of the ECDM, ACE Programme participants will be able to increase engagement and share content knowledge with their fellow ASEAN Member State representatives, to communicate for building trust and cooperation among partner organisations, and to facilitate disaster relief coordination at a regional level.
Written by : Putri Mumpuni & Ayunda V. Siagian | Photo : AHA Centre
DEUTSCHE POST DHL
Logistics – in particular the handling of relief items at times of emergency – form an integral part of any disaster response, and therefore a key aspect of the AHA Centre’s role as the primary regional coordinating body for disaster management in the ASEAN region. Having worked together during the large-scale response following the Central Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami event in 2018, the AHA Centre and Deutsche Post DHL (DPDHL) quickly realised the shared value that a formalised partnership between the two entities could have. The AHA Centre formalised this partnership by signing a Memorandum of Intent to work together with DHL – one of the world’s leading logistics services providers – effective on the 1st of July, 2019 in Manila, the Philippines.
The AHA Centre and DPDHL’s first major experience in a working partnership took place after 2018’s major disaster event in Central Sulawesi, with the significant amount of relief pouring into Indonesia requiring extra support to receive and deliver items to the affected region. DPDHL provided significant support on the ground, handling international items at the established receiving centre in Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, as well as at Palu Airport – the entry-point to the affected area. It was this formative working experience that increased the interest of both parties to strengthen their partnership – with both directly witnessing the mutual benefit that such a partnership holds. Aside from this response effort, representative from DPDHL has also participated in the ASEAN Emergency Response and Assessment Team (ASEAN-ERAT) training programme, further promoting the engagement of public-private engagement in logistic management.
“We are excited to partner with AHA Centre in their growing role as a regional coordinating hub for the mobilisation of resources to disaster affected areas in Southeast Asia,” said Carl Schelfhaut, GoHelp Manager from the Asia Pacific DPDHL Group. “DPDHL Group has been closely following the One ASEAN One Response approach that the region has championed over the years and we fully support its implementation,” he continued.
The partnership – formalised through July’s MOI – will see DPDHL further engaging with the AHA Centre in future responses, with its Disaster Response Team (DRT) working on the ground alongside the AHA Centre to facilitate the movement of international relief items. Potential activities include unloading cargo planes, supporting professional warehousing and inventory management, and loading relief goods for onward transportation. DPDHL will also offer its expertise in logistics to support for the AHA Centre’s ASEAN-ERAT and ASEAN Humanitarian Logistics courses and activities. The AHA Centre’s Executive Director, Adelina Kamal highlighted the importance of the Centre’s further engagement in public-private partnerships such as this when she noted “public-private partnerships with industry experts like DPDHL Group are critical in scaling up the One ASEAN, One Response vision. As our partnership with DHL’s DRT team at Sulawesi last year demonstrated, their expertise in facilitating the flow of relief goods and supporting civil military relations is invaluable”.
Written by : WilIiam Shea | Photo : Deutsche Post DHL
TEMASEK FOUNDATION INTERNATIONAL
A key goal of the AHA Centre is to strengthen its sustainability through engaging a range of partners and supporters across all of its working areas, and its recent engagement with Temasek Foundation International evidences the value that new and innovative partnerships can have for both the AHA Centre itself, as well as the communities of ASEAN who find themselves facing disaster.
Temasek Foundation supports a diverse range of programmes that uplift lives and advance communities in Singapore and beyond, to strengthen social resilience, foster international exchange and regional capabilities, and advance science and nature. These are made possible through non-profit philanthropic endowments gifted by Temasek, a global investment company headquartered in Singapore. It was during 2018 that – recognising the value and role of the AHA Centre’s work in the region – Temasek Foundation approached the Centre with the opportunity for a valuable partnership. Only a few months after that, the multiple disasters in Central Sulawesi provided a platform for the two organisations to join together on disaster response efforts, with Temasek Foundation offering direct material support for the communities of Central Sulawesi – facilitated and distributed through the AHA Centre’s broad network of responders in the field.
Temasek Foundation helped answer a critical water and sanitation need during the disaster response and recovery period, by providing 1,300 water filtration kits through the AHA Centre. The portable and disposable filtration kits – valued at USD 91,000 – had a filtration capacity of about 2,500 litres, providing critical access to clean water for affected communities across the disaster-struck Indonesian province. Additionally, during 2018, as part of Temasek’s year-end greeting cards initiative, corporate donations were raised for non-profit organisations, of which the AHA Centre was a listed beneficiary and received a donation of SGD 5,000 as a result.
Aside from direct support opportunities, both parties also recognise the value in their aligned goals for capacity building – in this case related to disaster preparedness, as well as response. With their initial joint efforts proving the value and success in strategic activities, both organisations will explore further opportunities and activities that can support disaster management engagement in the region.
Written by : Carla Budiarto | Photo : Temasek Foundation International
The AHA Centre is proud to partner with Direct Relief – a humanitarian aid organisation with experience throughout more than 80 nations worldwide. Direct Relief leverages its status as a licenced and accredited distributor of pharmaceuticals to improve the health and lives of people affected by poverty or emergencies –providing medical aid, particularly in times of disaster. Direct Relief has also utilised its years of experience in disaster response to design and implement standardised solutions such as emergency response packs and medical facility modules that help address the needs of vulnerable communities before and after disaster strikes. In 2016, the AHA Centre and Direct Relief signed a Memorandum of Intent (MOI), with the three-year partnership resulting in a range of benefits for both parties, as well as the communities of ASEAN facing disaster.
Direct Relief’s approach to disasters focuses on supporting the immediate needs of communities by working with local partners and governments to determine required solutions based on each unique emergency situation. Their disaster response priorities include emergency logistics, equipping first responders, and bolstering existing medical systems, considering the specific needs of displaced persons, and being flexible based on disaster and location. Such aims align with those of the AHA Centre, and were reflected in the aims of the 2016 MOI which included:
● Access for the AHA Centre to in-kind (donations) of pharmaceuticals, medicines, medical equipment and supplies;
● The opportunity to stockpile and prepare such medical materials;
● Collaborative disaster preparedness working arrangements that support the AHA Centre with the identification of medical materials commonly required during disaster response, and supporting the efficient access to such materials when required;
● The collaborative development of a framework to engage corporate entities, such as medical suppliers, for stockpiling, funding and understanding medical supplies, that will in turn support the overall emergency preparedness and response mechanisms of the AHA Centre;
● Organising and engaging in information and knowledge-sharing activities between the partners, as well as externally, and Direct Relief providing the AHA Centre access to its own relevant resources and knowledge management that may support the AHA Centre’s operations.
More recently, the partnership has evidenced its value during the range of disaster responses coordinated by the AHA Centre during 2018 – particularly during the large-scale response and recovery efforts after the Central Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami during late 2018 and early 2019. Direct Relief identified a need for the procurement and development of specific health needs within a number of the region’s disaster-affected communities, and through the AHA Centre provided a direct injection of USD 50,000 for a latrine project. The support resulted in the development of 120 latrine units across 12 locations, having a significant impact on positive health outcomes for the people during the recovery phase. During the response, the AHA Centre also facilitated Direct Relief to provide support communicating with the Government of Indonesia and local NGO partners, to ensure smooth and suitable delivery of support in the affected region.
Direct Relief has also recently highlighted an interest in supporting the AHA Centre’s ASEAN Resilient Village project taking place during Central Sulawesi’s recovery stage. With 2019 marking the end of the current MOI, the AHA Centre and Direct Relief – in recognition of the valuable partnership – have already begun talks to continue and expand their working relationship. There are an array of potential opportunities and mutual values that may be addressed outside of the current agreement, and both parties hope to finalise the continuance of the partnership in the coming months.
Written by: Carla Budiarto, William Shea | Photo : Direct Relief
AGENCY FOR DEVELOPMENT AND COOPERATION
The Government of Switzerland, through the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), highlights humanitarian aid as a key priority within its international development efforts. Disaster risk reduction, emergency relief, and reconstruction are the three pillars of the SDC’s humanitarian activities, therefore aligning them strongly with the AHA Centre’s role in the ASEAN region. Throughout the last few years the SDC and AHA Centre have worked on a range of activities aiming to advance the ASEAN region’s disaster management practices and processes, forming the base of this key strategic partnership between the two bodies.
As part of this partnership, in 2018 the SDC supported the AHA Centre on the implementation of a real-time earthquake disaster response simulation, together with the Global Initiative on Disaster Risk Management (GIDRM – as covered in the Column Volume 48), which facilitated the AHA Centre staff to implement internal preparedness and response mechanisms, and included a review and evaluation following the scenario. SDC has also provided support through a range of expertise and consultations within AHA Centre programming, including two for the ARDEX-18 Referee Training in July 2018, and the implementation of ARDEX-18 in later in November. The experts were not only engaged directly in the activities, but also supported performance reviews of the AHA Centre’s emergency operations functions once the event had finished.
Additionally, Switzerland also provided funding support during 2018 to facilitate the AHA Centre’s participation in the Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Mongolia, also ensuring best practices from the region could be highlighted at this important event. Such support and engagement is of high importance for the AHA Centre, as it allows for a united and strong ASEAN voice on the international disaster management stage. This importance was further strengthened by the AHA Centre’s Executive Director Ms. Adelina Kamal when she stated recently that.
“ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT TASKS OF THE AHA CENTRE IS TO ENABLE THE ASEAN REGION TO ACHIEVE ITS VISION OF BECOMING THE GLOBAL LEADER ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT BY THE YEAR 2025. WE HIGHLY APPRECIATE THAT THE SWISS GOVERNMENT AS THE HOME OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN COMMUNITY SEES THIS IMPORTANCE AND HAS HELPED ASEAN THROUGH THE AHA CENTRE CLIMB THAT LADDER BY CONNECTING US WITH OTHER REGIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN COMMUNITY”
Written by: Wiliam Shea | Photo : AHA Centre, SDC