POTENTIAL COASTAL HAZARDS IN THE REGION
According to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), many of the world’s populations live in coastal regions. While idealistic for many, these regions still have a downside, which is that they are prone to an array of natural hazards.
Closer to home, Southeast Asia is one of the world’s most at-risk regions to the impacts and dangers caused by coastal hazards. Many areas of the Southeast Asia region are archipelagos, located between two large bodies of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. Therefore, these nations are among those most vulnerable to coastal hazards, including rising sea levels, tsunamis, erosion and tidal flooding. Additionally, coastal hazards are closely linked to the impacts of climate change – particularly the issue of rising sea levels – that increasingly endanger human populations, cities, and ports across the region. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand are examples of ASEAN countries who are vulnerable to coastal hazards, and are all home to large cities located in close proximity to the coastline.
There are four major coastal hazards as identified by NOAA, namely: rising sea levels, harmful algae blooms, storm surges and tsunamis. Rising sea levels are the largest potential hazard faced by coastal communities, overly due to the onset of climate change. Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) occur when colonies of algae grow out of control, having toxic or harmful effects on people, fish, marine mammals, and birds. Storm surges take place through abnormal rises in sea levels during a large storm, that are measured at the height of water above the normal predicted astronomical tide. The last primary hazard are tsunamis, as most ASEAN nations lie in the Ring of Fire, that is home to constant earthquakes that cause the large tsunami waves.
Based on these interrelated and challenging contexts, it is therefore critical to develop resilient communities who are prepared for these threats, as well as enhance the ability of those communities to absorb impacts and bounce back should disaster strike. With strong preparation – supported by clear response mechanisms – ASEAN communities will continue to overcome and manage risks related to coastal hazards across the region.
Written by : Moch Syifa | Source: oceanservice.noaa.gov
FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND LESSONS FROM COVID-19 RESPONSE
During June 2020 an online discussion with over 60 participants from government to the private sector, academia, media and other development partners, was convened to explore alternative data for disaster management, with a focus on Indonesia’s COVID-19 response. The discussion was implemented by Saraswati – a private Indonesian firm focused on innovations in the development sector – in collaboration with SIAP SIAGA, a disaster risk management programme funded by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
Some interesting and innovative examples of alternative data were raised as examples during the discussion – examples which could potentially be replicated and/or expanded for current or future disaster management contexts. Indonesian firm Iykra – for example –established a data network using data from Google and Flight Radar to provide analysis on mobility and early potential rates of infection. Google mobility data allowed them to develop data visualisations as an alternative source on community movement before and after large-scale social movement restrictions were implemented by the Indonesian government.
In another example, Pulse Lab Jakarta (PLJ) explored mobility patterns using data based on agreements negotiated with telecommunications providers. Such mapping was undertaken during and after natural disasters – for example following the 2018 Central Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami in Indonesia – to support insights on disaster response for multiple parties. PLJ has undertaken such work again to support the Indonesian government during this pandemic, particularly by visualising COVID-19 data from each Indonesian province for easier analysis and response.
Examples and innovations such as these form a large part of the AHA Centre’s ICT Roadmap, as well as the organisation’s overall push for increasing information and communication technology advances at the front and centre of ASEAN disaster management. While there is still much to be determined, even the small portion of ICT currently being utilised by disaster managers is having a significant impact. Alternative data not only provides new and unique insights, but also supports governments and other disaster management stakeholders to overcome data management challenges – particularly in relation to speed and infrastructure access required to gather traditional data within emergency situations. With proper understanding and utilisation, alternative data could form an integral part of disaster management processes, and support the development of policies, processes and activities through all parts of the disaster management cycle.
Written by : William Shea | Source : Saraswati Development Innovation
5 USEFUL APPS
FOR DISASTER-PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE
Living in the ASEAN region requires residents to equip themselves with a range of helpful technologies that can provide support to mitigate hazards that may arise under any circumstances. These days, technology is handy for receiving alerts and information on disasters and emergency. Increasing ease of access to information is important, as the ASEAN region sits on the Pacific “Ring of Fire”, leaving it prone to the full array of natural hazards. There are a range of applications you can use to receive disaster notifications, support your preparation, and inform you what to do during a critical event.
1. DISASTER ALERT
Developed by the Pacific Disaster Center (PDC) in Hawaii, the United States, this app allows the users to search the locations of current disasters, including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, storms, landslides, floods and forest fires. And recently, the app has also included tracking the spread of a major virus outbreak. Supported by the DisasterAWARE platform (also developed by the PDC), Disaster Alert provides GPS-based notifications, also allowing users to see other details and locations that are dangerous.
2. NATIONAL APPLICATION EXAMPLES
Info BMKG (Indonesia)
The Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) official app “Info BMKG”, offers features such as earthquake notifications, early warning weather alerts, and informations. Users can also get information about weather forecasts based on location. For earthquake information, all registered earthquakes can appear as notifications, complete with the epicentre location and its distance from the user.
Batingaw app (The Philippines)
Batingaw, a Tagalog word for “siren”, is a pro-active, comprehensive and rational disaster management mobile application adopted by the Office of Civil Defence (OCD) and National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) as a communication tool to help reduce and mitigate the disastrous effects of natural and human-made hazards on vulnerable communities. It was developed by Smart Communications, Inc. (Smart) in cooperation with the OCD and the NDRRMC. It highlights the need for tools that will not only strengthen public awareness on the importance of disaster preparedness, but also facilitate a nationwide system for disaster response and management.
Safety Guide (Brunei Darussalam)
This app provides guidelines to understand the nature of natural and man-made disasters; early warning signs and specific action plans to various emergency situations for individuals and the community as a whole. This app is based from the book published by the Brunei Darussalam National Disaster Management Centre in 2013 titled ‘Buku Panduan Asas Kecemasan dan Keselamatan Awam’.
3. QUAKEFEED EARTHQUAKE ALERTS
This free app is intended specifically for iOS users who have iPhones and iPads. As the name implies, the app is intended to inform users about earthquake occurrences. So far, it highlights earthquakes from M1.0 on the Richter scale in the USA, and M4.5 in other countries.
4. HAZARD – IFRC
Disaster Preparedness in Your Pocket. The app states that it provides instant access to the information you need to know to prepare for and respond to the impact of a range of hazards, using an alert system feature that provides official updates and warnings from alerting agencies. Hazard also allows you to prepare your homes and family for disasters, find help, and let others know you are safe.
In the ASEAN region, the app is currently supported by Red Cross and Red Crescent National Societies from Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines and
5. TRAVEL SMART (BONUS APP)
While Global Affairs Canada created this app, don’t let that stop you downloading it if you live elsewhere. Travel Smart app provides essential preparedness and emergency information about countries all over the world. A few highlights include locations of local emergency contacts and embassies, 24-5 alerts, estimated wait times at borders, historical data on storm seasons and natural disasters, transmittable diseases and outbreaks, higher risk areas of towns for tourists, and much more.
Written by : Ina Rachmawati
IN THE PHILIPPINES
For November the Colum volume 56 we cover the most frequent hazard that visits The Philippines – Typhoon.
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
Did you know that Typhoon, Hurricane and Cyclone are all essentially the same? As they are all types of tropical storms. The only difference is where they are located.
They are given different names depending on where they appear. Hurricanes are tropical storms that form over the North Atlantic Ocean and Northeast Pacific. Cyclones are formed over the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean. Typhoons are formed over the Northwest Pacific Ocean.
FREQUENCY OF TYPHOON IN THE PHILIPPINES
The Philippines is the most typhoon visited country in the world with an average of 20 tropical cyclones annually. For the past 10 years, 2013 was the year when the Philippines experience more than 25 typhoons in a year, that is nearly once every two weeks on average.
With the strongest was TC Sening (Joan) in 1970 – 275 kph. Costliest, TC Haiyan (Yolanda) 2013 – USD 2.2B and Deadliest with TC Haiphong 1881 – 20K Dead.
Catanduanes is the most frequently visited province by powerful typhoons, hence it was dubbed as “the land of howling winds”
THE NAMING OF TROPICAL CYCLONE
Ever wonder how typhoons get their names? And why do they have names at all? Meteorologists long ago learned that naming tropical storms and hurricanes helps people remember the storms, communicate about them more effectively, and so stay safer if and when a particular storm strikes a coast. These experts assign names to Typhoons according to a formal list of names that is approved prior to the start of each hurricane season.
When does a storm receive a name? Tropical storms are given names when they display a rotating circulation pattern and wind speeds of 63 kilometres per hour. A tropical storm develops into a hurricane when wind speeds reach 119 kph.
The Philippines is the only country in the world that has its own system of naming tropical cyclones. The first tropical cyclone in the Philippines to be assigned a male name was Tropical Depression “BAROK”.
The Philippines repeats the same Typhoon local name every four years but had retired 10 names which exceeded 300 deaths and USD 20M damage cost to agriculture.
The longest period where no typhoon affected the Philippines was August 15, 2002, until April 15, 2003, or 8 silent months.
Source: Earthsky.org, NDRRMC, PAGASA and Typhoon2000
Written by : Lawrence Aporto and Ina Rachmawati
Drought – formed by a significant, extended period of dry weather and limited rainfall – is particularly common across some of the ASEAN region’s drier areas. However, history has shown that drought is not confined to just those locations, with it known to impact communities and livelihoods from traditionally rainy climate, and can even be felt significantly outside of the directly-affected region.
Defining drought can be relatively complex, due to the fact that it is based not on a set precipitation figure – but compared to the average amount of precipitation experienced in a specific location. Therefore, a recognised drought situation in a tropical region (known for high rates of rainfall) may still be seen as very wet when compared to an arid location. However, we can simply determine that a drought is recognised when an area receives significantly less precipitation than it is used to, and does so over an extended period of time.
A key difference with drought, when compared to other disaster types, is its slow-onset nature. While earthquakes, floods and volcanoes strike quickly and often unexpectedly, drought slowly manifests over weeks and months of little-to-no rainfall. Sometimes bursts of rainfall may provide short-term relief, however the beginning and end of drought periods are usually only determined once the disaster has truly finished. Drought is most-often caused by changes or disruptions to the normal weather patterns (such as through winds or atmospheric circulation), with the increasing onset of climate change impact also linked to many drought situations.
IMPACTS OF DROUGHT IN ASEAN
It was recently reported by United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) that droughts have impacted over 60 million ASEAN citizens throughout the past 30 years, with such estimations considered conservative due to traditional underreporting of drought based on its slow-onset context. Through a study produced to support ASEAN disaster risk reduction under the ASEAN-UN Joint Strategic Plan of Action on Disaster Management, significant increases in the future impact of drought in the region were highlighted, particularly with increased detrimental impact of climate change on ASEAN communities.
Key challenges faced by ASEAN when facing drought include the tendency of high impact on farming communities and regions, increasing vulnerability for those who rely on agriculture as their primary source of income – including in Lao PDR (61% of citizens), Viet Nam (41%), Indonesia (31%), Cambodia (27%) and the Philippines (26%). Alongside this, drought conditions also tend to impact most heavily on poorer communities, increasing inequality and therefore the risk of conflict. The report calls on starting interventions now to reduce the impacts of drought, protect the poorest communities and foster more harmonious societies.
RISK OF SECONDARY DISASTERS
Drought impact and conditions also increase significant risk of a range of secondary disasters – or disasters that occur due to conditions impacted by drought. Flooding can increase in risk in drought-affected areas, particularly when flash rains arrive, with loose and dry topsoil adding to water runoff, alongside lack of flooding preparation by communities (due to ongoing dry weather). Landslides also become a significant risk, as land degradation and decreased plant life results in unstable and landslide-prone land areas. Fires clearly also increase in risk during drought conditions, as trees and plants become dry and more prone to ignition, while dry winds and lack of rain only add to fan the flames of any hotspots or flare-ups. As previously mentioned, human conflict (or human-influenced disaster) is also an increased risk due to drought, as inequality, hunger and forced displacement all become more prevalent the longer a drought continues.
While perhaps more challenging to prepare for than quick-onset disasters, ASEAN communities and governments must adopt new practices and policies to prepare for the forecasted increase in future droughts. Even in non-rural areas, efforts for water conservation and protection of green areas can support the overall context of drought mitigation. Working with farmers through new technology and drought-resistant crops, as well as promoting more sustainable land-use practices and more responsible water-use methods are all significant opportunities to help deal with the onset of drought. All parties clearly have a role in the preparation for and overcoming of future drought conditions in the region.
Written by : William Shea | Source : Ready for the Dry Years: Building resilience to drought in South-East Asia, United Nation Publication/ESCAP
Landslides are a common occurrence in the ASEAN region – particularly when heavy monsoonal rains are in season. They are a complex event, often caused by a mix of extreme weather and unstable soil dynamics, with their onset more likely taking place quickly and unexpectedly. Adding to the complexity is the constant development of new human settlements and buildings, many of which take place without proper consideration to location and risks – as well as adding to the instability of surrounding ground and soil formations. Coupled with an ever-changing climate and unpredictable weather, landslides continue to increase in number and threaten the lives and livelihoods of communities across ASEAN. There are, however, some simple steps that everyday citizens can take to ensure they are better-prepared should a landslide occur in their immediate area, and armed with this knowledge be more resilient in the face of a dangerous landslide.
While assessing the risk of landslides can be a scientific and technical process, there are some simple questions we can ask ourselves in order to identify landslide risks within our own homes and communities.
1. IS MY HOME BUILT IN A LANDSLIDE-POTENTIAL AREA?
High-risk areas for landslide are for homes on the side or at the bottom of steep hills, particularly in areas prone to heavy rains. Hilly areas that have been cleared of forest or experienced development (road or building) are also more susceptible to landslides, as are areas with visible water runoff flows.
2. HAVE THERE BEEN PREVIOUS LANDSLIDES IN MY AREA?
Landslides will often reoccur in a previous landslide location, due to the initial terrain and the increased instability due to the previous landslide. Aside from stories of previous landslides – alongside any registered occurrences – historic events can also be evidenced by fallen tree trunks, upheaved boulders and clear signs of land destruction.
3. ARE THERE VISIBLE SIGNS OF INSTABILITY, LEADING TO POTENTIAL LANDSLIDE IN THE FUTURE?
Cracks and crevices in land are strong signs of landslide potential, as are sunken areas of land or holes clearly caused by water drainage. Also look for structures (such as electricity poles or even buildings) that are leaning to the side, as this is a sure sign of land movement that could result in landslide.
FACING A LANDSLIDE
Although they can occur quickly and unexpectedly, there are a number of steps that everyday citizens can take to ensure they are better-prepared and ready to act should a landslide become imminent or occur at short notice.
1. READ THE ‘SIGNS’
Staying up-to-date with weather predictions and being prepared is imperative to ensure you can move at a moment’s notice. Keep a close eye on changes in your surroundings, and monitor any changes in land or surrounding environment that might point to an occurrence. Listen to heavy or other deep rumbling that may signify a landslide, and overall, if things don’t feel safe, follow your instinct and leave.
2. PREPARE AN EVACUATION PLAN
Most local governments will have a disaster evacuation plan, so make sure you learn it and share it with your family. Support this plan by making your own household evacuation plan – including what to do, each person’s responsibilities, and where to go if the time comes to evacuate.
3. READY A GRAB BAG
Having a Grab-Bag is imperative should you have to evacuate at short notice. Amongst other things, it should contain drinking water, nutritional food/snacks, spare warm clothes, a torch, a communication device, and important medication. It is best to place it in a waterproof bag, as evacuations from landslides will often take place in heavy rain and muddy conditions.
AFTER A LANDSLIDE
An area that has experienced a landslide may remain unstable for some time, however when it is considered safe to return, there are a number of things that require attention.
1. STAY AWAY
Initially, the safest option is to remain away from the landslide location, as to avoid being caught in any reoccurrence. You should look to authorities to provide assessment and information regarding when it is safe to return to your home after a landslide.
2. CHECK FOR INSTABILITY
Upon returning, survey your immediate area and check for signs of land instability surrounding your home. Check your home itself for cracks or shifts in the structure, as well as gas and electricity connections for signs of rupture. Do not stay in your home if there are still danger signs related to any of these things.
3. REPLANT DAMAGED GROUND
Longer-term, a great way to help avoid a landslide reoccurrence is to replant surrounding land with trees and bushes native to your area. This will help compact and stabilise the soil, as well as support draining and diverting groundwater runoff in future wet weather events.
Written by : William Shea | Photo : AHA Centre
DISASTER ASSESSMENT AND COORDINATION (UNDAC) – INDUCTION COURSE
The United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) is part of the international emergency response system, designed to help the United Nations and governments of disaster-affected countries during the first phase of a sudden-onset emergency. The UNDAC Induction Course forms a series of pre-induction webinars, followed by a 2-week intensive training course, which initiates members to the concept and methodology of UNDAC’s response work. Upon successful completion, new members will be placed on the UNDAC emergency roster, and are expected to make themselves available at least 2-3 times a year for emergency missions.
UNDAC is a global counterpart of the ASEAN Emergency Response and Assessment Team (ERAT), with its own mandates of assessment, coordination and information management fitting well with the ASEAN-ERAT design. From 14-26 July 2019, the Indonesian National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) – Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) – hosted the latest UNDAC Global Induction Course at the Ina-DRTG Training Facility in Sentul, Bogor. This training, organised by the Emergency Response Support Branch of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA), in collaboration with the BNPB, is the second time Indonesia has hosted the event since 2014. The workshop engaged 30 humanitarian professionals from numerous organisations from more than 15 countries, and included a number of staff from the AHA Centre, as well as the ASEAN-ERAT members from the ASEAN countries. The course itself was conducted by more than 20 facilitators, made-up of professionals from organisations such as UN OCHA, UNDAC, ACAPS, MapAction, Télécoms Sans Frontières (TSF), International Humanitarian Partnership (IHP), and the AHA Centre.
The AHA Centre staff engaged in the training included Lawrence Anthony Dimailig (Assistant Director for Disaster Monitoring & Analysis) and Grace Endina (Preparedness & Response Officer), with both members identifying practices from the course that – if modified to suit the region’s context – could be applicable and valuable for ASEAN’s own ASEAN-ERAT Induction Course. Alongside this, the staff highlighted that learning the UNDAC methodology helps increase their understanding of how the UNDAC works, and supporting the strengthening of common understanding that will contribute towards better interoperability between the organisations when working together within the region.
Additionally, the course was also attended by 5 current ASEAN-ERAT members from Lao PDR, Malaysia, Philippines, and Viet Nam. This also supports increasing the interoperability between UNDAC and ASEAN-ERAT and broadens understanding and context for those members engaged.
These themes formed the core of the AHA Centre’s key outcomes and benefits from their engagement in the UNDAC Induction Course. The engagement supports better interoperability between ASEAN-ERAT and UNDAC during large-scale emergency responses within the region, and the intensive training with hands-on exercises providing an appreciation as to how UNDAC tools work during emergency response. Increased understanding on these global mechanisms will benefit ASEAN-ERAT members, as well as NDMO officials, regarding synergies between national, regional and global mechanisms in order to increase a coordinated response in times of crisis. The engagement also supports the AHA Centre’s work towards realising the goal of ASEAN X.0 within the One ASEAN, One Response vision. Within this goal, ASEAN-ERAT and AHA Centre staff are envisioned to support the work of UNDAC during large-scale emergency responses outside of the ASEAN region itself. The course formed a platform for the ASEAN region and the AHA Centre to promote its regional mechanisms in a global environment, and to draw upon experiences responding alongside the United Nations – in particular during the 2018 Central Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami response.
Written by : Lawrence Anthony Dimailig | Photo : AHA Centre
THE AHA CENTRE
AS THE REGIONAL KNOWLEDGE HUB ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Enhancing disaster resilience in the region forms the ultimate objective of the AHA Centre as a regional disaster management knowledge hub. Knowledge will promote improved responses, as well as improved preparedness measures. Knowledge distilled from real experience is utilised to inform policy makers, as well as support affected community with the steps that need to be taken to prevent similar catastrophes from happening again. Promoting knowledge, therefore, is in-turn promoting disaster resilience.
The AHA Centre can play a number of crucial roles as a regional knowledge hub, including advocating for evidence-based policy making, promoting professionalism, supporting innovation around the region, managing a comprehensive database system, and sharing its experience in disaster management beyond the region.
Evidence-based policy ensures that policy development is based on actual, credible evidence. Evidence-based policy development approaches enable policy makers to make better strategic decisions, especially in the area of disaster management. The AHA Centre believes that this approach will help Member States in developing their resilience against disaster, as policy will be developed from tried and proven methods and actions. To advance this, the AHA Centre will partner with reputable universities and think tanks that can provide useful policy inputs to the governments of the ASEAN Member States based on reliable research.
Human resources are a critical component in overall disaster management, as they are the ones at the forefront, in the field, and directly in touch with affected communities. Developing capacity and professionalism for disaster workers will help enhance the quality of disaster response of Member States, as well as contribute positively to the overall disaster management system of the nation. To promote professionalism, the AHA Centre will work closely with a diverse range of partners – including universities, training institutions, and National Disaster Management Organisations (NDMOs) – to develop strong standards and capacity building activities.
The AHA Centre will also work to promote innovation in the management of disasters in the region. Innovation is the application of better solutions to existing challenges, and by promoting innovation in disaster management, the AHA Centre aims to encourage and facilitate the production of new ideas that will improve disaster mitigation and resilience in the region. New technologies form one of the main tools of innovation. However, innovation in disaster management not only includes technology, but also explores non-technological innovations, such as changing disaster structure mechanisms, improving processes, changing mind-sets and paradigms, building community resilience, and revising rules and regulations that can facilitate faster, more efficient, and more flexible emergency response operations.
As a knowledge hub, the AHA Centre also manages a comprehensive database system on disaster-related information in the region. Database management has long been identified as a key potential role for the AHA Centre as a knowledge hub. Under this role, the Centre collects diverse types of disaster information, including data on research, experts, disaster management professionals, and disaster management laws in the region among many others. By performing this role, the AHA Centre seeks to support the disaster community in the region by ensuring the availability of relevant information that can support decision-making processes, research initiatives, innovation, as well as partnership and networking between various stakeholders.
Finally, the AHA Centre should also work to share and disseminate ASEAN knowledge beyond the region. The Centre can disseminate ASEAN’s, as well as individual Member States’ knowledge, lessons and best practices across and beyond the ASEAN region, in line with the vision to develop ASEAN into a global leader on disaster management by 2025.
Written by : William Shea | Infographic : AHA Centre
THE ASEAN RISK MONITOR AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT REVIEW
As covered in Volume 49 of the Column, the AHA Centre’s publication and launch of the ASEAN Risk Monitor and Disaster Management Review (ARMOR) recently took place, with the publication aiming to bridge science with decision making in the region’s disaster management field. The journal, made-up of 10 unique chapters, stands as the first publication of its kind providing risk profile information specifically regarding the ASEAN region. As the sheer amount of accumulated knowledge and information on disaster in the region continues to grow, the first ARMOR publication opens a forum for critical analysis and synthesis of such information, aiming to inform policy making and disaster management operations, both within the region and outside. Importantly, the first edition also highlights best practices, trends and innovations in ASEAN disaster management, and provides the platform for further expansion of current ideas as well as facilitating a space for new considerations from some of the region’s leading disaster management minds.
NEW AND UNIQUE INSIGHTS
One of the stand-out features from ARMOR’s first edition is the range of new, innovative and unique information it provides regarding disaster management in the region. A modern and unique theme is raised in Chapter Five, as the authors take readers through the context of Natech: The Silent and Potentially Deadly Threat in ASEAN, that discusses the growing potential risk of Natech (technological incidence/disasters triggered by natural hazards) in ASEAN, and how the region can work to mitigate such risks. Such an area is becoming increasingly relevant as the region continues to develop, with the risks related to technological disaster due to natural hazards increasing alongside the increasing numbers of factories, hazardous material sites and technology-based infrastructure throughout ASEAN’s landscape.
Chapter Two (Most-at-Risk Cities in ASEAN That Must be Watched) also gives the readers a fresh update regarding research findings on risk of disaster for ASEAN cities, with new and updated data leading to some interesting and unexpected findings – some of which challenge traditional perceptions regarding disaster management in the region. Similar findings and unique circumstances are also delivered in Chapter One Trillion Dollar Multi-Hazard Risk Landscape in Southeast Asia article. An interesting discussion on Utilisation of Space-based Information for Supporting Emergency Response and Recovery takes place through Chapter 10, with the article developed based on actual emergency response experiences that utilised space-based information, alongside direct field observation, to inform operational decision making.
THE ASEAN REGION’S PROGRESS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
A key strength of ARMOR is its delivery of information related to the ‘state-of-play’ for disaster management in the ASEAN region. We are provided with a strong insight into the relevant topic of climate change and its impact on areas such as water, food and health security during disaster, with Chapter Three focused on Why Climate Change Matters for ASEAN. The conversation on early warning systems and their use and impact for ASEAN is also highlighted, with Chapter Five providing analysis and a snapshot of the State of Early Warning Systems in ASEAN. ARMOR also provides focus to the AHA Centre itself, particularly the opportunities for the AHA Centre to fully realise its role as a knowledge hub for disaster management. This interesting insight is covered through in Chapter Seven’s Regional Knowledge Hub for Disaster Management: Strategy, Policy and Practice in ASEAN, followed-on directly with Chapter Eight discussing the evolving roles of the AHA Centre in Regional Centrality and the Shift of Humanitarian Landscape: The Case of ASEAN. Such information is developed by analysing and comparing two uniquely different emergency response operations – super typhoon Haiyan and the earthquake and tsunami in Central Sulawesi – providing readers not only a historical insight to the change that has evolved over time, but also the key areas in which the AHA Centre has established its role within the regional disaster management landscape.
KNOWLEDGE THAT CROSSES GENERATIONS
A great aspect of this ARMOR edition is the array of input from researchers and professionals covering different generations and skillsets, ensuring that the full scope of ASEAN disaster management is encompassed within the 10 chapters. We learn about the history of ASEAN disaster management and lessons learned through Achieving the ASEAN 2025 Vision for Disaster Management: Lessons from a Worthy Journey in Chapter Nine – a piece developed by seasoned researchers Alistair D. B. Cook and Lina Gong. In contrast, one of ASEAN’s up-and-coming disaster researchers, Juwita Nirmalasari, proposes an innovative way to accurately and immediately identify drought events that can be utilised by policy makers to engage in early and significant interventions, as the guest contributor in Chapter Six titled Application of Breaks for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) for Drought Monitoring. This range of elements, mix of modern and historical outlooks, and the array of experiences and backgrounds provides balance and space for innovation throughout the entire journal. In reality, it represents how the ASEAN disaster management sector should be perceived throughout all of its efforts – combining experience and lessons learned based on research and data, while remaining open and ready to embrace new technology and innovative ideas from new generations of disaster managers moving through the ranks.
Written by : William Shea
INSIGHT INTO A UNIQUE PHENOMENON
For this Column Volume’s Insight, the AHA Centre invited a young contributor who was also one of its interns – Eviana Rosida – to develop an interesting and informative article. Evi’s current studies in disaster management see her focusing on the unique occurrence of tidal flooding, upon which she has developed this volume’s Insight article. For the ASEAN region, with a coastline 173,00 km in total length, and nine nations bordering the sea or having maritime zones, the potential for tidal flooding is significant. Increasing population density in coastal areas across the region also increases potential impact, while many high-density areas facing the sea are formed by coastal cities.
ABOUT TIDAL FLOODS
Tidal floods in coastal areas may happen due to the process of rising sea water, tidal waves (different from tsunami), the high flow of river water, or general sea level rises. Naturally, tropical cyclones can also trigger a tidal flood. A tidal flood is a flood due to the tidal process that inundates land/coastal areas that are located lower than the average sea level. Long ocean waves are related to tides, and are characterised by the rhythmic rise and fall of the sea surface after a period of several hours. A rising tide is usually referred to as the flow, while the decreasing tide is called the ebb.
There is also a connection between tides and the sun and moon. Tides are in their highest state when the moon is full or new, and high tidal times at a particular location can be estimated (but not exactly) associated with the position of the moon in the sky. Water at the end of the beach bordering the ocean never stays at a fixed height, but they always move up and down according to the tide cycle. These elements also have an impact on tidal flooding.
THE FORMATION OF TIDAL FLOOD PROCESS
As the tidal process undertakes its vertical movement of sea level, these shallow water waves are produced by the gravitational force of the moon and sun on the ocean. The intensity of the force varies according to the position of the moon, sun and earth, and as a result, large tides see the water (with the help of gravitational forces) flow into low places and fill the space, inundating these lower parts.
Tidal flood can be caused by anthropogenic activities, particularly due to land degradation. Human populations living in coastal areas result in high use of groundwater. This use of ground water that exceeds the limit of the groundwater’s ability to replenish is called exploitation, and can increase vulnerability to inundation due to tidal flooding. Tidal floods have hit several areas in Java, Indonesia for example, as the density of people who live on Java has an impact on land subsidence, with high groundwater exploitation causing water to easily inundate the land. The impact of tidal flood sees bodies of sea water causing damage to asphalt roads, and damage to motorised vehicles and bicycles. In addition, sea water that enters the land (sea water intrusion) causes the groundwater to taste salty, and meaning it cannot be used as raw material for drinking water or for daily needs. Salty groundwater can also have a significant negative effect on farming livelihoods in an inundated region.
TIDAL FLOOD PREVENTION
In the short-term, such events may be prevented by building dikes to withstand the tidal waves of sea water heading to the mainland. More long-term, the effect of tidal flooding can be reduced by planting mangroves. Mangrove forests play an important role as ocean wave breakers, retaining wind speeds, and as a habitat for various flora and fauna. Such biological prevention techniques can also be supported by physical development, such as building wall borders between sea and land to act as a wave breaker. Communities who live in coastal area must also be aware about rising sea levels, and reducing exploitation of groundwater so that land subsidence can be avoided.